Step 2: State of the art


2.1 Definition of the analysis

One of the first priorities of the Energy Manager is to clearly identify which energy areas will be included in the analysis. The areas of analysis and intervention can be threefold:

  1. Sectoral

The sectoral analysis addresses different energy sectors, which may cover all the following or only a few:

  • Heating and cooling
  • Hot water
  • Lighting
  • Ventilation
  • Construction design and materials
  1. Horizontal

The analysis can also be horizontal, addressing one specific action that can be implemented in all departments of the institution, for example, the green public procurement.

c) Departmental

The third option is to limit the analysis in specific units of the knowledge institution, rather than scrutinize every single department (especially if the organization under analysis is a large campus or a research institute).

In each case the Energy Manager will have to define the specific needs and problems in each energy area / sector / department, in order to conduct an overall energy analysis.

2.2 Identification of data sources

An important phase for each institution is to understand its energy trends. In order to do this, the identification of relevant data and information sources is imperative. Sources of existing information are: invoices, meter readings, relevant measurements and audit reports that can be systematically collected and recorded. The gathering of sufficient data is considered necessary for on-going monitoring.

The collection of data can help:

  • Identify energy consumption ups and downs and correlate them to specific events or operations that occurred during that period of time
  • Compare the institution’s data with other knowledge institutions for benchmarking
  • Identify areas where there is lack of adequate data, and work to fill in the gaps

2.3 Energy inputs and emission outputs

Energy inputs consist mainly of non-renewable energy such as oil, natural gas and electricity. Emission outputs include emissions and waste heat. Emissions such as carbon dioxide are directly linked with the institution’s energy consumption and contribute to negative environmental effects. Emissions from district heating depend on the fuels combusted and will be provided by the plant owner. Emissions for electricity consumption depend on the power plant where electricity is generated and can be requested from the electricity supplier. Importnatly, the institution’s staff should be aware of these effects and realise that their activities do not only have an influence on consumption but also on the environment.

2.4 Technical specifications

The Energy Manager will certainly need more details and analytical information regarding technical aspects of the institution’s energy system, covering the heating and cooling systems, lighting, ventilation and construction materials. For this purpose, the Energy Manager might need the assistance and experience of an external energy expert.

This Roadmap will not go any deeper analysing the technical specifications of this step, as it is merely a descriptive and not technical tool. For more details on technical aspects, please refer to other manuals, such as the EMAS Toolkit on Energy Efficiency.


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